1. Crown Jellyfish
Found in a canyon about 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) deep, this unidentified jellyfish is likely a type of Atolla, a genus of crown jellyfish that dwells only at depth. Photograph courtesy NIWA
2. ”Mickey Mouse” Squid
Commonly called a “mickey mouse” squid, this small sepiolid was discovered about 3,000 feet (900 meters) deep on a canyon wall. Photograph courtesy NIWA
3. Cup Coral
Unlike reef-building corals that form giant colonies, cup corals—such as thisStephanocyathus platypus, found 3,200 feet (1,000 meters) down—live solitary lives in their cuplike limestone exterior skeletons, according to Monterey Bay Aquarium. Photograph courtesy NIWA
4. Honeycomb Glass Sponge
With a silicon-based skeleton, a new species of “beautiful and fragile” honeycomb glass sponge of the Farrea genus was found on a seamount at 3,100 feet (950 meters) deep—and it wasn’t alone. Photograph courtesy NIWA
The Tangaroa Seamount offered up a new species of tonguefish in theSymphurus genus (pictured). Photograph courtesy NIWA
6. Coral, With a Side of Crab
Pictured with a crab emerging from its middle, this likely new species ofEpizoanthus coral has polyps that, when extended, resemble its close relative the sea anemone. Photograph courtesy NIWA
7. Sea Slug
A potential new species of sea slug was caught in a canyon at depths of 4,100 feet (1,250 meters). Photograph courtesy NIWA
8. Snake Stars
Yellowish snake stars of the species Asteroschema bidwillae were caught on an undersea peak called Tangaroa Seamount at a depth of 4,000 feet (1,220 meters). Photograph courtesy NIWA
9. Uroptychus Squat Lobster
Found between depths of 2,130 feet (650 meters) and 4,600 feet (1,400 meters), this squat lobster of the Uroptychus genus isn’t the first known specimen of its kind, but its species hasn’t yet been formally recognized. Photograph courtesy NIWA
Fire Goby Nemateleotris magnifica
The firefish inhabits burrows on the upper portion of outer reef slopes at a depth range of 6–61 m. This species hovers above the bottom, facing the current to feed on zooplankton: primarily copepods and crustacean larvae. This species does not stray far from its burrow, and occurs individually or in pairs. This species displays monogamy.
Super Family: Alpheoidea
The pistol shrimp competes with much larger animals like the Sperm Whale and Beluga Whale for the title of ‘loudest animal in the sea’. Amazing, given that the pistol shrimp is only 1–2 inches (3–5 cm) long.
It is distinctive for its disproportionately large claw, (larger than half the shrimp’s body) which does not have pincers at the end. Rather, it has a pistol-like feature made of two parts. A joint allows the “hammer” part to move backward into a cocking position like a gun. When released, it snaps into the other part of the claw, creating a cavitation bubble capable of stunning fish and breaking small glass jars.
As the bubble extends out from the claw, it reaches speeds up to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and releases a sound reaching 218 decibels. The duration of the click is less than 1 millisecond.
The snap can also produce sonoluminescence [light] from the collapsing bubble. As it collapses, the cavitation bubble reaches temperatures of over 5,000 K (4,700 °C). In comparison, the surface temperature of the sun is estimated to be around 5,800 K (5,500 °C). The light is not visible to the naked eye. It is likely a by-product of the shock wave. It was the first known instance of an animal producing light by this effect.
The snapping is used for hunting, as well as for communication. When feeding, the shrimp usually lies in an obscured spot, such as a burrow. The shrimp then extends its antennae outwards to determine if any fish are passing by. Once it feels movement, the shrimp inches out of its hiding place, pulls back its claw, and releases a “shot” which stuns the prey; the shrimp pulls it into the burrow and feeds. Source
Excellent video of the Pistol Shrimp in action:
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Ocean Chemistry, Calcium May Have Led to Explosion of Life
More than 500 million years ago, during a time known as the Cambrian explosion, novel categories of multicellular life forms appeared in a carnival of biological innovation unmatched in our planet’s history. New research ties together this burst with an ancient mystery called the Great Unconformity.
The Great Unconformity refers to the huge gaps left in the planet’s rock record where relatively young sedimentary rocks — still a few hundred million years old — sit atop much older igneous and metamorphic rocks. For example, in the Grand Canyon, 1.7-billion-year-old metamorphic rock is topped by a layer of sandstone that’s about 500 million years old. Similar unconformities exist throughout much of the world, leaving a limited record precisely when life was advancing so quickly.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news-Ocean-Chemistry-Calcium-May-Have-Led-to-Explosion-of-Life-042012.aspx
Sand bubbler crab
Sand bubbler crabs live in burrows in the sand, where they remain during high tide. When the tide is out, they emerge on to the surface of the sand, and scour the sand for food, forming it into inflated pellets, which cover the sand. The crabs work radially from the entrance to their burrow, which they re-enter as the tide rises and destroys the pellets.